5. Generic SQLite backend (2 and 3)

5.1. Compiling the SQLite backend
5.2. Setting up the database
5.3. Using the SQLite backend

Table A.5. Generic SQLite backend capabilities

DNSSECgsqlite3 only (set gsqlite3-dnssec)
Disabled datagsqlite3 only
Commentsgsqlite3 only
Module namegsqlite and gsqlite3
Launch namegsqlite and gsqlite3


When importing large amounts of data, be sure to run 'analyze;' afterwards as SQLite3 has a tendency to use sub-optimal indexes otherwise.

This backend retrieves all data from a SQLite database, which is an RDBMS that's embedded into the application itself, so you won't need to be running a separate server process. It also reduces overhead, and simplifies installation. At http://www.sqlite.org you can find more information about SQLite.

As this is a generic backend, built on top of the gSql framework, you can specify all queries as documented in Generic MySQL and PgSQL backends.

SQLite exists in two incompatible versions, numbered 2 and 3, and from 2.9.21 onwards, PowerDNS supports both. It is recommended to go with version 3 as it is newer, has better performance and is actively maintained. To use version 3, choose 'launch=gsqlite3'.

5.1. Compiling the SQLite backend

Before you can begin compiling PowerDNS with the SQLite backend you need to have the SQLite utility and library installed on your system. You can download these from http://www.sqlite.org/download.html, or you can use packages (if your distribution provides those).

When you've installed the library you can use: ./configure --with-modules="gsqlite" or ./configure --with-modules="gsqlite3" to configure PowerDNS to use the SQLite backend. Compilation can then proceed as usual.

SQLite is included in most PowerDNS binary releases.

5.2. Setting up the database

Before you can use this backend you first have to set it up and fill it with data. The default setup conforms to the following schema:

CREATE TABLE domains (
  id                    INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
  name                  VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL COLLATE NOCASE,
  master                VARCHAR(128) DEFAULT NULL,
  last_check            INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
  type                  VARCHAR(6) NOT NULL,
  notified_serial       INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
  account               VARCHAR(40) DEFAULT NULL

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX name_index ON domains(name);

CREATE TABLE records (
  id                    INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
  domain_id             INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
  name                  VARCHAR(255) DEFAULT NULL,
  type                  VARCHAR(10) DEFAULT NULL,
  content               VARCHAR(65535) DEFAULT NULL,
  ttl                   INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
  prio                  INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
  change_date           INTEGER DEFAULT NULL,
  disabled              BOOLEAN DEFAULT 0,
  ordername             VARCHAR(255),
  auth                  BOOL DEFAULT 1

CREATE INDEX rec_name_index ON records(name);
CREATE INDEX nametype_index ON records(name,type);
CREATE INDEX domain_id ON records(domain_id);
CREATE INDEX orderindex ON records(ordername);

CREATE TABLE supermasters (
  ip                    VARCHAR(64) NOT NULL,
  nameserver            VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL COLLATE NOCASE,
  account               VARCHAR(40) DEFAULT NULL

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX ip_nameserver_pk ON supermasters(ip, nameserver);

CREATE TABLE comments (
  id                    INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
  domain_id             INTEGER NOT NULL,
  name                  VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
  type                  VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL,
  modified_at           INT NOT NULL,
  account               VARCHAR(40) DEFAULT NULL,
  comment               VARCHAR(65535) NOT NULL

CREATE INDEX comments_domain_id_index ON comments (domain_id);
CREATE INDEX comments_nametype_index ON comments (name, type);
CREATE INDEX comments_order_idx ON comments (domain_id, modified_at);

CREATE TABLE domainmetadata (
 id                     INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
 domain_id              INT NOT NULL,
 kind                   VARCHAR(16) COLLATE NOCASE,
 content                TEXT

CREATE INDEX domainmetaidindex ON domainmetadata(domain_id);

CREATE TABLE cryptokeys (
 id                     INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
 domain_id              INT NOT NULL,
 flags                  INT NOT NULL,
 active                 BOOL,
 content                TEXT

CREATE INDEX domainidindex ON cryptokeys(domain_id);

CREATE TABLE tsigkeys (
 id                     INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
 name                   VARCHAR(255) COLLATE NOCASE,
 algorithm              VARCHAR(50) COLLATE NOCASE,
 secret                 VARCHAR(255)

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX namealgoindex ON tsigkeys(name, algorithm);

This schema contains all elements needed for master, slave and superslave operation.

After you have created the database you probably want to fill it with data. If you have a BIND zone file it's as easy as: zone2sql --zone=myzonefile --gmysql | sqlite powerdns.sqlite, but you can also use AXFR (or insert data manually).

To communicate with a SQLite database, use either the 'sqlite' or 'sqlite3' program, and feed it SQL.

5.3. Using the SQLite backend

The last thing you need to do is telling PowerDNS to use the SQLite backend.

            # in pdns.conf
            launch=gsqlite # or gsqlite3
            gsqlite-database=<path to your SQLite database>   # or gsqlite3-database

Then you can start PowerDNS and it should notify you that a connection to the database was made.